Convicts in the Indian Ocean: Transportation from South Asia by C. Anderson

By C. Anderson

Whilst the British took keep watch over of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius quickly after the abolition of the slave exchange, they have been confronted with a labour-hungry and almost certainly opposed Franco-Mauritian plantocracy. This booklet explores the context within which Indian convicts have been transported to the island and positioned to paintings development the infrastructure essential to gasoline the growth of the sugar undefined. Drawing on hitherto unexplored archival fabric, it's proven how convicts skilled transportation and built-in into the Mauritian social and fiscal textile.

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Additional info for Convicts in the Indian Ocean: Transportation from South Asia to Mauritius, 1815–53

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In any case, almost half of the Bengal convicts were tattooed on their forehead by the process known as godna. Those convicts marked with godna had their name, crime, date of conviction and sentence inscribed, with blue indigo ink, in their vernacular 36 Convicts in the Indian Ocean language. 13 In the years before indentured Indian immigration accelerated, the convicts were thus easily recognisable, produced as `other' to the slave, apprentice, creole and white European population. They were permitted to wear their own clothing, with the Civil Storekeeper also issuing a new piece of white cloth and a blanket every year.

Territory in central and western India was ceded to the British, and many Maratha armies were disbanded. By this time, warfare had wrecked the countryside and numerous Kazaucks, sometimes known as rohillas,140 Afghans (pathans) and the shattered remains of the Maratha light infantry were left unemployed. This resulted in the growth of the Pindaries, a term coined by the British to describe mercenaries formerly employed as cavalry by the Maratha armies. 141 The Third Maratha War of 1817±18 was the final Maratha uprising against the British; they were defeated for a third time.

85 This cessation of supply, together with high mortality rates, caused convict numbers to dwindle. Death rates at sea were not the main cause of this. 8 per cent). 89 The cholera epidemic (1816± 17) claimed a number of lives. 1 per cent per year. 95 The Bombay authorities were more forthcoming. Those of its convicts sentenced to transportation over the next year, who fulfilled Farquhar's specifications, would be sent. 97 In practice, aspects of Mauritian selectivity criteria were not applied, as Bombay took the opportunity to rid itself of serious offenders.

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