By Bernhard Blanke, Randall Smith
This quantity explores a number of present difficulties confronted by way of towns in Germany and England whereas reflecting on positive recommendations for boosting the standard of lifestyles for the voters of twenty-first century city environments. The chapters of the ebook are according to papers given at a symposium prepared via the colleges of Bristol and Hannover in 1997 to have a good time the fiftieth anniversary of twinning among the 2 towns.
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Extra info for Cities in Transition New Challenges, New Responsibilities
Uncertainty is mixed with concern. In a number of the above areas some actors feel not simply uncertain, but also uneasy, fearing the adverse consequences on their organizations of some of the factors identiﬁed above, but believing that uncertainty shared is uncertainty reduced. In the wake of the fragmentation of institutional form experienced in the 1980s and the proliferation of new organizations and agencies during that decade, there is now a new recognition of 30 Murray Stewart the signiﬁcance of integration and of the interdependence of local organizations.
There is no democratic governmental form at the regional level, little struggle for power or resources, and – until recently – negligible political debate. There is little agreement about the existence or nature of regional identities. There are overlapping and confusing deﬁnitions of regions, with a multiplicity of mutually inconsistent boundary overlays. The region has seldom been seen as a focus for the exercise of administrative discretion or professional expertise; in terms of civil service careers it has been at best a stepping stone, at worst a graveyard.
E. project-oriented strategic alliances, or the collaboration is ‘externalized’ by creating organizations which are less ‘politicized’ yet can be controlled, such as a development agency (with limited competences and managed through a set of clear rules by a ‘board of directors’ which draws its members from the partners involved); the internal dynamics of the partnership do not lead to the kind of closer relationships which could in turn develop into a more sustained network of cooperation. For, if the partnership does not evolve beyond risk avoidance, it lacks the inherent dynamism of development.