By Swalm C.M. (ed.)
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Some components may be tumble packed into the transit outers where the use in the packing plant is by automatic machinery, or they may require careful stacking. However they are packed, it is essential that the transit container withstands the journey hazards that it will be subjected to. 3 Lightweighting Lightweighting of all components must be considered seriously if the designers or technologists are to demonstrate that they have complied with the legislation on packaging use. This is well documented throughout the EU, and the requirements are likely to become more stringent as time progresses.
Tex June 3, 2006 18:26 INTRODUCTION (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) 33 Packing costs. Storage of packed product. Transport to the wholesaler. Storage at the wholesaler. Transport to the retail store. Storage at the retail store. Transport to the user. User costs. Disposal after use (through the disposal chain). Each of the above has an environmental cost that should be considered when making a life cycle analysis. For components coming from different suppliers, the environmental cost may well be different as the methods of transport and storage costs will be different, even if the end component is the same.
It is not the intention of this section to list all the different tests that may be carried out on a container and closure – such a list could easily ﬁll this book and be irrelevant to many of the readers. What it will do is delineate the three main types of testing: (i) investigational testing, (ii) comparative testing and (iii) assessment, giving information on when and how the data thus collected should be used in the ﬁnal pack speciﬁcation. With all testing, it is important that, wherever possible, standard tests are used to generate data.