ASM Handbook: Materials Characterization by George M. Crankovic

By George M. Crankovic

This quantity provide you with an simply understood reference e-book on smooth analytical strategies. With over 950 illustrations and ninety five tables, the emphasis is at the useful instead of theoretical, describing the commonest functions and boundaries of every process.

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The reliability of any measurement depends on sample quality. A poorly devised sampling plan or uncertainties in the sampling process, in sample storage, preservation, or pretreatment may obscure results or prevent their interpretation. This article will primarily consider the problem of sampling bulk materials, including minerals, metals, environmentally important substances, and industrial raw materials and waste products. The design of bulk sampling programs involves: • • • Identifying the population from which the sample is to be obtained Selecting and withdrawing valid gross samples of this population Reducing each gross sample to a laboratory sample suitable for the analytical techniques to be used Inherent in the design should be an effort to maintain sampling conditions that yield accurate results rapidly and economically.

Sources of information on procedures for sampling specific materials are cited in Ref 15, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25. References cited in this section 15. A. M. J. , John Wiley & Sons, 1979, p 299-359 19. K. Taylor, Principles of Quality Assurance, NBSIR 85-3105, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, 1985 20. F. I. Hoffman, Outlines of Methods of Chemical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1938 21. G. K. Taylor, "A Survey of the Recent Literature on Sampling for Chemical Analysis," NBS Technical Note 1153, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, 1982 22.

As an atom absorbs energy, one or more of the outer electrons may be promoted to higher energies, producing an excited state. The energy of an atomic state is a function of the energies of the individual electrons and of energy changes resulting from interactions among the electrons. Each possible combination of electron configurations produces a spectroscopic term that describes the state of the atom. Electronic Energy Levels. The simplest atoms, such as hydrogen and the alkali metals, have only one electron outside a filled shell.

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