By Thomas L. Floyd
Analog basics: A platforms Approach presents specified insurance of analog units and circuits with a structures emphasis. Discrete linear units, operational amplifiers, and different linear built-in circuits, are all coated with much less emphasis at the person gadget, and extra dialogue on how those units are included into greater circuits and systems.
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Extra info for Analog Fundamentals: A Systems Approach
For certain situations and applications, there are specialized measuring instruments designed for the application. Some of this specialized equipment is designed for (c) Output: high-frequency attenuation a speciﬁc frequency range or for a speciﬁc application, so they won’t be discussed here. The digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) has mostly replaced the analog CRT-based FIGURE 1–24 Square-wave scope. It has some particular advantages for troubleshooting because it can be used to response of wide-band ampliﬁers.
Increase 3. not change 4. increase 7. decrease 8. increase 41 CHAPTER 2 DIODES AND APPLICATIONS OUTLINE 2–1 2–2 2–3 2–4 2–5 2–6 2–7 2–8 2–9 2–10 The Atomic Structure of Semiconductors The PN Junction Biasing the Semiconductor Diode Diode Characteristics Rectiﬁers Rectiﬁer Filters and IC Regulators Diode Limiting and Clamping Circuits Special-Purpose Diodes The Diode Data Sheet Troubleshooting OBJECTIVES • Discuss the basic atomic structure of semiconductors • Describe the characteristics of a pn junction • Explain how to bias a semiconductor diode • Describe the basic diode characteristics • Analyze the operation of three basic types of rectiﬁers • Describe the operation of rectiﬁer ﬁlters and IC regulators • Analyze the operation of diode limiters and clampers • Explain the characteristics of four different special-purpose diodes • Interpret and use a diode data sheet • Troubleshoot a power supply using accepted techniques KEY TERMS Energy Electron Semiconductor PN junction Diode Bias Forward bias Reverse bias Rectiﬁer Filter Integrated circuit Limiter Clamper INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the basic materials used in manufacturing diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits are described.
The reason is that they also continuously absorb energy from their surroundings. If the amount of energy they absorb is greater than what is radiated, the temperature of the body rises; if it is less, its temperature falls. The wavelength that is emitted depends on the temperature of the body. If a body is hot enough, it radiates energy in the visible spectrum; if it is cooler the radiated energy is primarily in the infrared region. Although our skin is very sensitive to heat, we have physical limitations in our ability to detect the location and the amount of heat being produced.