By Marshall C. Yovits
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4 top-notch authors current the 1st ebook containing a catalog of object-oriented layout styles. Readers will easy methods to use layout styles within the object-oriented improvement procedure, tips on how to clear up particular layout difficulties utilizing styles, and achieve a standard vocabulary for object-oriented layout.
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When the list has been exhausted, the return-valueform will be evaluated and this value will be returned from the entire dolist. In other words, the number of iterations of a dolist is driven by the length of the list returned by its list-form. Dotimes is similar in many ways to dolist, but instead of a list-form, it takes an expression which should evaluate to an integer. The body is evaluated once with the iteratorvariable set to each integer starting from zero (0) up to one less than the value of the Integer-form: CL-USER(54): (let ((result 1)) (dotimes (n 10 result) (setq result (+ result n)))) 46 In situations when you want the program to exit early from an iteration, you can usually accomplish this by calling return explicitly.
1 Hash Tables A hash table is similar to what is known in some other languages as an associative array. g. symbols or integers. Hash tables support virtually constant-time lookup of data, which means that the time it takes to look up an item in a hash table will remain stable, even as the number of entries in the hash table increases. To work with hash tables, CL provides the constructor function make-hash-table and the accessor function gethash. In order to set entries in a hash table, use the setf operator in conjunction with the gethash accessor function.
CL is more consistent in this regard. 7 Packages Typically, symbols in CL exist within a particular package. You can think of packages as “area codes” for symbols. They are namespaces used within CL to help avoid name clashes. e. symbols whose names are preceded by a colon). ANSI CL has a “flat” package system, which means that packages do not “contain” other packages in a hierarchical fashion, but you can achieve essentially the same effect by “layering” packages. Actually, hierarchical packages have been added to Allegro CL as an extension to the ANSI Standard, and may be added to the ANSI standard at some point.