Advanced Metallization & Interconnect Systems for Ulsi by Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo

By Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo Tsubouchi

The MRS Symposium continuing sequence is an the world over acknowledged reference appropriate for researchers and practitioners.

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Extra resources for Advanced Metallization & Interconnect Systems for Ulsi Applications in 1996: Materials Research Society Conference Proceedings

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Sawtooth surface with grooves parallel to the triple line. 35). This equation was the first to take into account roughness effect on contact angles. 21). 20). 00235 II 20 ! II w II | I ! II I 30 il II II ! II II I I~ I ir 40 ii 'll'l | ii w i 0 M (deg) '~ 50 ii w a J w i 'i i ! 20. Reduced free energy per unit length of triple line of a meniscus on the solid surface shown in Figures I. 18 and I. 19 plotted as a function of the macroscopic contact angle. s -2, fl = l0 ~ and Lr = 100 l~m. Results from (Eustathopoulos and Chatain 1990) [l].

23. 20. From Eustathopoulos and Chatain (1990) [l]. 20), it may be asked what is the metastable position chosen by the triple line in the course of an experiment. 23) shows that Eb is maximum when 0M tends towards 0w. , an energy due to vibrations which occur unavoidably in any experimental device). 23). In the model of Johnson and Dettre, the whole triple line passes a defect in one move, and E b is proportional to the length of TL and the physical size of the barrier. As pointed out by de Gennes (1985), the necessary energy would be very high and such a mechanism is thus not realistic.

A typical wetting experiment usually allows measurement of O'LV and 0, so that it provides only the value of the equilibrium work of adhesion Wa(Psat) - aLV(1 + COS0). Note that only the non-equilibrium work of adhesion Wa~ reflects the interaction energy between the solid and the liquid phases and this can be calculated from theoretical models. 12) equals W ~ and not Wa. 49) Thus, Ws(Psat) represents the change in the interfacial energy of the system resulting from the formation on a solid surface of a continuous liquid film with a macroscopic thickness.

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