A Visual Introduction to the Fourth Dimension (Rectangular by Chris McMullen

By Chris McMullen

This colourful, visible creation to the fourth measurement offers a transparent clarification of the thoughts and various illustrations. it really is written with a slightly of character that makes this an enticing learn rather than a dry math textual content. The content material is particularly available, but even as exact adequate to fulfill the pursuits of complex readers. This booklet is dedicated to geometry; there are not any non secular or spiritual parts to this publication. might you take pleasure in your trip into the attention-grabbing global of the fourth dimension!


  • Introduction
  • Chapter zero: what's a Dimension?
  • Chapter 1: Dimensions 0 and One
  • Chapter 2: the second one Dimension
  • Chapter three: 3-dimensional Space
  • Chapter four: A Fourth size of Space
  • Chapter five: Tesseracts and Hypercubes
  • Chapter 6: Hypercube Patterns
  • Chapter 7: Planes and Hyperplanes
  • Chapter eight: Tesseracts in Perspective
  • Chapter nine: Rotations in 4D Space
  • Chapter 10: Unfolding a Tesseract
  • Chapter eleven: go Sections of a Tesseract
  • Chapter 12: dwelling in a 4D House
  • Further Reading
  • Glossary
  • About the Author

Put in your spacesuit, strap in your security harness, swallow your anti-nausea drugs, and revel in this trip right into a fourth measurement of area! 10D, 9D, 8D, 7D, 6D, 5D, 4D, 3D, 2nd, 1D, 0D. Blast off!

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Extra info for A Visual Introduction to the Fourth Dimension (Rectangular 4D Geometry)

Example text

The images below show a couple of ways for an architect to circumvent this problem. Note that a 2D monkey would be "trapped" in a square prison, whereas a cube is needed for a 3D prison. Let's consider a few more features of a 2D world before we move on up to 3D. In 2D, a tree would be a barrier. Our 2D monkey friends would either have to climb over them or chop them down. If a 2D monkey digs a tunnel, it will collapse. There is similarly a major problem with pipes: Any supports placed inside the pipe to prevent it from collapsing also prevent the passage of water through it.

Sees just a linear image; the leaves look like a short green line and the trunk appears as a longer brown line. Perspective is somewhat more complicated in 4D space. To draw a 4D object (like a tesseract full of monkeys) on a 2D sheet of paper, you must first project the image of the 4D object onto 3D space and then project the 3D image onto the 2D sheet of paper (flattening those poor little monkeys twice in the process). (Note: Professional stunt monkeys were used in this demonstration. ) Therefore, when drawing a rectangular 4D object on a 2D sheet of paper in perspective (where one face lies in the plane of the paper), there are 2 vanishing points.

Sure, the author could have drawn monkeys, but that would deprive you of the opportunity to imagine your own monkeys. Actually, the real reason is that we're going to draw 4D objects, and they will probably be much easier to understand if they look more like rectangles and less like monkeys. We'll keep talking about monkeys, though, to spice up the text, but the drawings will all be plain, boring, straight-line stuff. Just remember that all of those straight lines are really monkey tails. Be careful not to poke them with your finger as you turn the page.

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