By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. creation: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. suggestions and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. good isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic sessions: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. development and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; common index
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Extra resources for A geologic time scale 2004
11 Ma Holmes (1937) Holmes (1960) Kulp (1961) NDS82 Odin (1982) 225 (227) (225) GTS82 GTS89 Harland et al. Harland et al. 5 M Tremadoc 500 L 375 Frasnian 385 Givetian 392 Eifelian 398 400 Emsian 407 Pragian 411 Lochkov. 416 Pridoli 419 Ludlow 423 Wenlock428 Llandovery 444 450 L 461 Darriwilian 468 M 472 L Paibian 501 500 M M 520 E E E 540 540 Famennian 513 E E 350 Tournaisian 359 479 E Tremadocian 488 M St. David's 300 Bashkir. 318 320 Namurian 325 250 Artinskian 284 Cisuralian 509 St. 0 Cambrian Sakmarian 293 Asselian298 Stephanian 305 M 523 530±10 263 267 270 274 Artinskian 285 485 Tremadoc Tremadoc 500 500±15 Kazanian Ufimian Kungurian 250 251 Changhsing.
Its estimated duration has decreased about 60 myr since the scales of Holmes (1960) and Kulp (1961). Selected key Paleozoic time scales are compared to GTS2004 in Fig. 5a,b; historic changes stand out best when comparing the time scale at the period level in Fig. 5a. g. the Ludlow Stage in the Silurian, or the Emsian Stage in the Devonian). Whereas most of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic have had relatively stable stage nomenclature for some decades (Figs. 7), the prior lack of an agreed nomenclature for the Permian, Carboniferous, Ordovician, and Cambrian periods complicates comparison of time scales (Fig.
Cenoman. 96 96 Cenoman. 97 Cenoman. 5 Cenoman. 100 83 83 84 84 250 Introduction whole-rock samples. A good review in this respect for the Devonian is found in Williams et al. (2000), whose study points out that it is clearly desirable to combine high analytical precision with narrow biostratigraphic control to provide the most useful points for time scale calibration. These authors make a case that the Carboniferous–Devonian boundary is near 362 Ma instead of near 354 Ma or even younger, as shown in more recent scales of Fig.