By Ageev A.A., Baburin A.E., Gimandi E.K.
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The willingness to participate in future waves of the same study was also higher in the rewarded group (93 versus 84 per cent, respectively). Findings like these suggest that the extra costs involved in rewarding participants may well be offset by higher participation rates. Note, however, that professional organizations such as the British Psychological Society prohibit using incentives to induce participants to risk harm beyond that which they risk without such incentives in their normal lifestyle (British Psychological Society, 1991).
In such cases, the issue is how to persuade people to participate, rather than how to contact them. , 1995). If the rewards exceed the costs, the participant will cooperate; if the costs are higher than the rewards, a refusal will follow. This suggests two basic ways of reducing refusal rates. One is to increase the participants' (perceived) rewards; the other is to lower their (perceived) costs. Increasing rewards The relationship between an investigator and the participants recruited for the study is often a one-sided affair.
As stated above, responders may differ systematically and in important respects from nonresponders. As nonresponse can only be selective to the degree that there is nonresponse, one `standard piece of advice' (Little, 1995) is that nonresponse should be avoided wherever possible. Therefore, the following section addresses strategies that may be employed to this aim. Better safe than sorry: minimizing nonresponse and attrition Investigators can adopt two basic approaches to the reduction of nonresponse and attrition.