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244 BATTERY STORAGE PLANTS Figure 8. Waveforms in square wave operation. (a) A single pole, in square wave operation. (b) Three poles configured as a three phase voltage source converter. Waveforms shown: VAO, VBO, VCO ϭ line-to-neutral square wave voltages; VAB, VBC ϭ two line-to-line six pulse voltages. build multiple poles. The individual poles are gated to produce voltages at different phase positions and then are interconnected to accomplish the voltage control and harmonic reduction. The connections generally take the form of multiple poles connected in parallel across the battery voltage, with the outputs of poles connected effectively in series (using transformers) to form the ac output wave.
This puts a premium on maintaining a low switching frequency. The ratio of switching losses to conduction losses varies with the type of semiconductor chosen. As semiconductor devices are developed with very low switching losses (and requiring only small snubbers) then the advantages of low switching frequency are diminished. Power semiconductors currently in use for large battery converters are seldom switched above a 1 kHz rate, and efficiency will be maximized by switching them at a line frequency rate (50 or 60 Hz).